Business Communication (Imp. for Internals)

Multiple Choice Questions :-
1. A person who conduct the interview is called as __________.
(Interviewer, interviewee, boss, subordinates)

2. A __________ is conducted to hear the grievances of the employees of the organisation.
(Exit interview, grievance interview , appraisal interview, selection interview)

3. A __________ refers to the gathering of two or more persons in order to discussed matters of common concern, in order to arrive decisions or promulgate a policy.
(Group,meeting, conference, committies)

4. A __________ refers to a written intimation of date, time, place & the business to be transacted at the meeting.
(Notice, report, circulars, pamphlets)

5. __________ refers to a list of items to be discussed in a meeting.
(Agenda, resolution, discussion)

6. __________ provides a personal touch which is very valuable for building goodwill.
( Open house , press conference, fairs, exhibition)

7. __________ could be used more effectively than a brochure to pursuate,inform & educate.
( Webpage , fairs, exhibition, opinion polls)

8. __________ is called when journalists are invited & allowed to ask questions which are replied by a spoksperson on behalf of the organisation.
( press conference, meeting, committee)

9. A __________ is not important in a group discussion.
( time management, knowledge, writing skills)

10. __________ interview takes place when an employee is leaving an organisation.
( promotion, exits, appraisal)

11. __________ does the paper work for a meeting.
( secretary, conveiner, chairperson)

12. The claim can be met by supplying __________ goods.
( new, old, substitute)

13. Finding out facts about the organisation you work for and preparing __________ is the basic tool of the successful public relation man.
( fact sheets , questionnaires, survey, bulletins)

14. __________ is used to solve the personal problem of the employees which might be affecting their work & efficiency.
( advice,counselling, persuation, suggetion)

15. Quesions on which a vote is taken is called the __________.
( resolution,motion, decision, agenda)

16. __________ interviews are coducted by a qualified psychologists after the formal interview is over.
( exit, understress,clinical, appraisal)

17. The candidate should __________ prepare himself to deal with different types of interviews.
(mentally, physically, never, always)

18. In __________ interview the interviewer listen instead of speaking.
( direct, exit, non-directional, selection)

19. The writer  should express __________ for making the complaints.
( joy, regret, condolence)

20. __________ can reduced tension, frustration & state practical and attainable goals before workers.
( advise,counselling, suggetion, persuation)

Write in One sentences :
1. What is sales letter?
Ans: A letter that is sent out to persuade the reader to buy a commodity or service is called sales letter.
2. What is public relation?
Ans: Public Relations is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort of an organization to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public.
3. What is the first step in conveining a meeting?

4. What is a notice?
Ans: A written intimation of date, time, place & the business to be transacted at the meeting is called notice.
5. What is an agenda?
Ans: A list of items to be discussed at the meeting is called an agenda.
6. What is an inquiry letter?
Ans: A letter that seeks information about a product or a service is called as letter of inquiry.
7. What is a group discussion?

8. Why are the appraisal interviews are conducted?
Ans: Appraisal interviews are conducted to review the performance, future work plan & personal prospects of the subordinates.

Write a Short notes (2 out of 3) :-
1. Advantages of a conference.
2. Exit interview.
3. The main body of Group Discussion.
4. Disadvantages of a meeting.
5. Performance of the interviewee or candidate during the job selection interview.
6. Summerizaion/conclsion of Group Discussion.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR):

Articles of UDHR :-
The 30 articles of UDHR are as follows :
Article 1 :-
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2 :-
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms setforth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Article 3 :-
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4 :-
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5 :-
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6 :-
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7 :-
All are equal before the lawand are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.

Article 8 :-
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9 :-
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10 :-
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11 :-
Everyone charged with apenal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had allthe guarantees necessary for his defence.

Article 12 :-
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.

Article 13 :-
Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

Article 14 :-
Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

Article 15 :-
Everyone has the right to a nationality and shall not be deprived or denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16 :-
Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family.

Article 17 :-
Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

Article 18 :-
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 19 :-
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.

Article 20 :-
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

Article 21 :-
Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

Article 22 :-
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation.

Article 23 :-
Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work and right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24 :-
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25 :-
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessarysocial services, and the right to security in the eventof unemployment, sickness,disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

Article 26 :-
Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

Article 27 :-
Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

Article 28 :-
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29 :-
Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law.

Article 30 :-
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right toengage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms setforth herein.


Characteristics/Features of Human rights:

*Define human rights? What are the characteristics of human rights?

It is very difficult to the express “human rights”. This is because states differ in cultural background, legal systems and economic, social and political conditions. However we can say that the rights that all people have because of their humanity are human rights.Human Rights are rational beings. They possess certain basic rights. These rights are commonly known as human rights. There are the rights that no one can be deprived of without doing him great injustice.
Durga Das Basu brings out the essence of human rights. He defines human rights which every individual must have against the state or other public authority by virtue of him being a member of human family, irrespective of any other consideration.
(b) Characteristics of human rights:

1. For Individuals :
Human rights belong to an individual because of his very existence. They are inherited by all individuals irrespective of their cast, religion, sex and nationality.

2. Essential and Necessary :
These rights are essential for all individuals. In their absence, physical, moral, social and spiritual welfare is impossible. They are also necessary because they provide suitable conditions for moral upliftment of the people.

3. Connection with human dignity :
The idea of human rights is bound with the idea of human dignity. Thus all those rights which are essential for the maintenance of human dignity may be called human rights.

4. Irrevocable :
Human rights are irrevocable. They can not be taken away by any power or authority. They belong to a person simply because he is a human being.

5. Necessary for fulfillment of purpose of life :
Human life has a purpose. The term “Human rights” is applied to those conditions which are essential for the fulfillment of this purpose Since rights are bound with the purpose of human life. No government has the power to curtail or take away these rights.

6. Universal :
Human Rights belong to each and every one of us. The values which form the basis of those rights are inherent in human nature.

7. Rights not Absolute :
Each right carries with it some special duties and responsibilities. So each right is subject to certain limitations. These limitations may arise due to the need for:
-Respecting the rights of others
-Protecting National Security
-Maintaining public order
-Safeguarding public health.

8. Dynamics :
They are dynamic in nature. As societies change, rights also under go changes. Judges have to interpret laws in such ways that they are in tune with the changed social values.

9. Rights have limits to the states power :
Human rights imply that every individual has legitimate claims upon his or her society for certain freedoms and benefits. So Human Rights limit the states power.
For example, 6 freedoms that are given under the ‘Rights to Liberty’ forbid the state from interfering with the individual.

Concept / Advantages / Disadvantages of Globalisation –

Concept of Globalisation :-
Globalisation is a process of rapid integration or inter-connection between countries through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flow, migration, & the spread of technology.
The main elements of Globalisation includes the followings :
1. Introduction of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) :-
The government of India introduced FEMA 1999 to make foreign exchange transactions easier such as obtaining of funds by Indian companies from abroad, overseas investment by Indian firms, holding of properties in India by NRIs, holding of properties by India nationals abroad.

2. Reduction in custom duties :-
The government of India reduced the custom duties. The reduction in import duties has resulted in cheaper import into India.

3. Liberalisation of foreign investment :-
The government of India has liberalised foreign investment which in turns has given a good boost to Indian capital market.

4. Signing of WTO Agreement :-
India has signed a number of agreement in order to expand Indian trade worldwide. Some of the agreement includes TRIPS (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights), GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Service).

Advantages of Globalisation :-
1. Free flow of foreign capital.
2. Free flow of new technology & production method.
3. Increased in Industrialization.
4. Increased in employment & income.
5. Benefits for consumers.

Disadvantages of Globalisation :-
1. Loss of domestic industries.
2. Unemployment.
3. Increasing inequalities between rich & poor.
4. Cultural problems.
5. New type of political & commercial colonization.

Concept /Advantages /Disadvantages of Liberalisation

Concept of Liberalisation :-
Progressive elimination of government control over economic activities is known as “liberalisation”.
Liberalisation refers to freedom to business enterprises from excessive government control and they are given freedom to make their own decisions regarding production, consumption, pricing, marketing, borrowing, lending & investments.
The major elements of Liberalisation in India includes the followings :
1. De-licencing of industries :-
The Industrial Policy 1991 abolished (cancelled), licencing for most industries which helped Indian companies to concentrate on productive activities.
The 6 industries that required licencing are alcohol, cigarattes, industrial explosives, defence product, drugs & pharmaceuticals, hazardous chemicals, etc.

2. Liberalisation of foreign investment :-
The necessity to obtain approval for foreign investment from various government authority often caused delayed. At present FDI is 100 % in certain sectors such as infrastructure, exports, hotels, tourism, etc. The Liberalisation of FDI has resulted in certain benefits such as increased in inflow of foreign capital, Development of skills of Indian personnels due to foreign MNCs training transfer of technology by foreign partners to Indian firms.

3. Liberalisation of foreign technology imports :-
The liberalized import of foreign technology led to technological improvement in Indian industries. This helped in getting automatic permision for foreign technology imports and no permision was required for hiring foreign technitians & foreign technology testing.

4. Liberalisation of industrial location :-
The Industrial Policy 1991 stated that, there is no need to obtain approval from central government for industrial location. This enabled the Indian firms to set up industries at a right location of their choise without much interference from government authority.

5. Liberal taxation :-
The government of India has introduced liberal reduction in taxation rates on direct tax & indirect tax, customs, excise, service which has greatly benefited the firms operating in India.

Advantages of Liberalisation :-
1. Increase in foreign investment.
2. Increase in efficiency of domestic firms.
3. Rise in the rate of economic growth.
4. Control of price.

Disadvantages of Liberalisation :-
1. Increase in unemployment.
2. Loss to domestic unit.
3. Increased dependence on foreign nation.
4. Unbalanced development of sectors.


Concept / Advantages / Disadvantages of Privatisation

Concept of Privatisation :-
   Privatisation is the transfer of control of ownership from public sector to private sectors.
It means the conversion of property rights from the public to private owners.
   The two elements of Privatisation are as follows :
1. Dereservation of public sectors :-
   The dereservation of public sectors has enabled the entry of private sectors in those industries which were reserve only for public sectors. This has led to improve customers service & efficiency of the firms. At present, 3 industries has reserved for public sector are Railways, Automic energy, & Specified minirals.

2. Dis-investment of Public sector :-
   Dis-investment is a process of selling government equity in PSUs (Public Sector Undertaking) to private parties. The disinvestment is undertaken to achieve good customers service, overcome polotical interference, overcome curruption in PSUs, improve efficiency of PSUs.

Advantages of Privatisation :-
1. Helps in reducing the burden on government.
2. Makes the PSUs competative.
3. Greater automomy for PSUs managers.
4. Industrial growth.
5. Better service to customers.

Disadvantages of Privatisation :-
1. Encourages the growth of monopoly power.
2. Privatisation may be prefer only for profit making PSUs.
3. Unbalance development of industries.
4. Compromise of social justice & public welfare.
5. Increased in corruption.

Migration: Meaning / Types / Causes / Effects

Introduction :-

Migration means movement or shift of people from one place to another. People move from one place to another for temprary or permanent settlement due to social,political & religious reasons.
Globalisation has made migration of people easy & common.

Types of Migration :-

The following are the different types of migration :-
1. Local Migration :-
It involves movement of people from one locality to another.

2. Regional Migration :-
It involves movement of people from one region to another.

3. Rural to Urban Migration :-
It involves movement of people from rural areas to cities areas due to industrialization.

4.Urban to Rural Migration :-
It involves movement of people from urban areas to rural areas due to higher cost of urban living.

5. Mars Migration :-
It refers to the movement of large group of people from one geographical areas to another.

6. Forced Migration :-
It refers to forced movement of people away from their home against their will due to violence, natural calamities or communal rights.

Causes of Migration :-

1. Economic factors :-
Unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from one place to another. Rural people migrate to cities in search of employment opportunities for better salaries, incentives, higher standard of living.

2. Social factors :-
Migration may also takes place due to social factors such as family, marriage, children, etc. After marriage a girl has to migrate from her place of resident to her husbands place & if a child decide to study elsewhere, the parents also migrate to the place where the child decide to study.

3. Environmental factors :-
Natural disaster such as flood, famine, earth quack,etc compel people to migrate to safer places.

4. Medical factors :-
Some people experience poor health conditions due to unsuitable climate and high population level. due to this, they migrate from one place to another for better medical & health care facilities.

5. Political factors :-
Political migration takes place due to political instability, communalism, linguism, regionalism, riots, terrorism,etc. which creates conflicts & violence in cities & states. Thus, political factors leads to migration of people to the place where there is proper law & order.

Effects of Migration :-

1. Brain Drain :-
There has been migration of Indian professionals, academicians, scientists, engineers,etc to foreign countries. Due to which their talent, knowledge & skills are denied to our country’s growth & development.
Therefore,our country should undertake effective planning to solve the problem of brain drain.

2. Increase of foreign exchange reserves :-
When people migrate to foreign countries, earned foreign currency & sent it to their family in home country. There is an increase in foreign exchange reserve of the home country.

3. Fusion of cultures :-
International migration leads to fusion of culture due to exchange of cultural traits such as food habits, dressing style, language, etc which result in change of lifestyle & personality of the migrant.

4. Hostilities towards migrants :-
The migrants have to face hostilities from local people, who may not treat them well and they may even harm their life & property leading to torture & harassment.

5. Social & psychological problems :-
Migration leads to social problems such as overcrowding of people, growth of slumps, increases crimes & evils, spread of diseases,etc.
When people migrate to different places leaving behind their family, relatives & friends, they feel lonely, isolated and insecure which leads to many psychological problems.