What is Bank and What are the types of Bank?


Bank is an institution which deals in money and credit. It accepts deposits from the public and grants loans and advances to those who are in need of funds for various purposes. Banks encourage saving habits among individuals and thereby make funds available for their use whenever requires.

Channels of Business Communication – Formal & Informal

Definitions of Communication:-

The term communication is ambiguous, despite the fact that it is a daily phenomenon.

Definitions of communication vary widely. Besides human communication, some definitions cover animal communication with members of the species, as well as with human beings.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as “the action of conveying or exchanging information and ideas.”

Peter Little in his book Oral and Written Communication defines communication as “the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and or organizations so that an understanding response results.”

According to Keith Davis

“Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.”

Business Communication:-

As Business Communication plays an important role in any business organization, it is necessary to focus on its meaning. Business Communication is the sharing of information related to business activities and their results.

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Nature and Features of Marketing:

Marketing is a vital functional area of a business organization. The success of a business organization largely depends on the performance of the marketing department.

Effective marketing generates customer satisfaction, enhances corporate image, enables the firm to gain a competitive advantage, maintain customer relationship, develops a brand image, enhances brand equity, sustains brand loyalty, facilitates business expansion, and so on. See full post

Business Law (S.Y.B.Com)

1. Proposal :- When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal.

2. Promise :-
When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposalis said to be accepted. A proposal, when accepted, becomes a promise.

3. Consideration :
When, at the desire of the promisor, the promisee or any other person has done or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or to abstain from doing, something, such Act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise.

4. Agreement :-
Every promise and every set of promises, forming the consideration for each other, is an agreement.

5. Contact :-
An agreement enforceable by law is a contract.


CP-I SEM-II (Objectives)

Q.1. Objectives
[A] Select appropriate word from the given options and rewrite the statement :-
1. In India, the service sector contribute about ________ of the total employment.
(30%, 25%, 15%)

2. services are generally ________.
(intangible, tangible, demonstrable)

3. In India, service sectors contribute about ________ of the GDP.
(30%, 40%, 60%)

4. Generally, a company collects data from ________ source.
(secondry, primary, tertiary)

5. At present, FDI is allowed upto ________ in single brand retail.
(100%, 74%, 51%)

[B] State whether following statement True or False.
1. Services can be provided in anticipation of demand.
Ans: False.

2. Service provider need to conduct market research.
Ans: True.

3. The operating cost of organised retail are lower as compared to unorganised retail.
Ans: False.

4. Most banks in India do not issue ATM card.
Ans: False.

5. ATM card create inconvenience to the customers.
Ans: False.

Define Conflict and Explain the Causes of Conflicts

Definition :-

Conflict can be defines as ” a process in which one party perceives that another party has taken or will soon taken actions that will harm the first party”.

Conflict is any situation in which two or more parties finds themselves in opposition.

Causes of Conflicts :-
The following are the causes of conflict in an organisation :-
1. Organisational Changes :-
The factors such as changing technology, social, cultural, and political environment leads to organisational changes which are likely to create conflict.

2. Different set of values :-
People in an organisation have different set of values. For instance, some people value honesty, sincerity and integraty whereas others may not. such differences may result in a conflict.

3. Personality clashes :-
There are differences in personality because every one does not think, feel, look or act alike. The differences in personality can be a caused of conflicts among people in an organisation.

4. Threat to status :-
Status in important to many individuals in an organisation. When there is a threat to one’s status, conflicts arises and that person may make any possible affort to maintain and preserved the status.

5. Differences in perception :-
People view things differently due to their past experiences and expectations. Conflicts occurs between two persons having different perception of the same object.

6. Competition :-
Conflicts may arise as people or groups compete with each other for rewards or resources.

7. Problem of multiple roles :-
When a person has to play multiple roles, it can caused an intrapersonal conflicts.

8. Problems in setting goals :-
There can be clash or conflict between the superior and the subordinates  in setting a goals or priorities in the organisation.

9. Lack of trust :-
Every relationship requires trust, a capacity to depends on each others words or actions. It takes time to build trust, but it can be destroyed in a moment. Lack of trust caused conflict in the organisation.

Define Stress and Explain the Causes of Stress.

Stress :-
Robert baron defines stress as “ a state of psychological and/or physiological imbalance resulting from disparity between situational demands and individuals ability and/or motivation to meet those demands.
Stress is the general term applied to the presure people feel in life. stress is said to be positive when a situation offers an opportunities for a person to gain something. Eustress is the word used to describe positive stress. Stress is said to be negative when a person faces social, physical, organisational or emotional problems.

Causes of Stress :-
The factors or conditions that caused stress are called “Stressors”.
The four causes of stress can be broadly divided into four groups :-

[A] Organisational Stressors :-
The organisational stressors also called as ‘job related stressors’ are caused due to the following factors :
1. Role Conflicts :-
It takes place when different people have different expectation from a person performing a particular role. Role conflicts occurs if the job is not as per expectation of an individual or when a job demands a certain type of a behavior that is against a person’s moral values.

2. Role Ambiguity :-
It takes place when the person does not have a clear idea about his task and responsibilities in doing a job. Role ambiguity occurs when a person lacks proper knowledge of the job or lacks the skills to perform a particular task which creates confusion in the minds of the workers and may lead to stress.

3. Working conditions :-
The poor working conditions, poor lighting, improper ventilation, unhygenic sanitation facility, excessive noise and dust, presence of toxic gasses, etc creates physiological and psychological balance in a person thereby causing stress.

4. Rotating shift :-
Stress may occurs to those individuals who work in different shifts. Employees may be asked work in day or night shifts and people who cannot adjust to the shift timing may face stress problems.

5. Work overload :-
It means doing too much of work in which alloted time. When an employee is asked to do many things in very little time, he may experience the stressful situation.

6. Work underload :-
It expects an employee to do very little work or too simple work because of which the person feels bored and leads to stress.

7. Organisational structure :-
The organisational structure such as poor organisational relationship, excessive rules and regulation, leadership of superiors, lack of participation in decision-making, poor performance of the organisation, modern organisational changes,etc caused stress.

[B] Group Stressors :-
The group stressors are caused due to the following factors :

1. Lack of Group Cohesiveness :-
Cohesion refers to the ability  of a group to remain together. Cohesiveness helps to developed team spirit among the members. Lack of cohesiveness leads to poor relations within a group which in turn may lead to stress.

2. Lack of social support :-
Employees feels contended by sharing their jobs or problems with other members. In the absence of such social support, it can be stressful to the members of a group.

3. Interpersonal and intergroup conflicts :-
Interpersonal and intergroup conflicts takes place due to differences in perception, attitutes, values and believes between two or more individuals or group as these are the sources of stress.

[C] Individual Stressors :-
The individual stressors are as follows :-

1. Personality :-
The personality of a person is the leading factor of stress in individual. A lazy personality person is more affected by stress and sincere personality person is less affected by stress.

2. Changes in life :-
The changes in life includes accident or death of a loved one, growing old, etc and these changes are highly stressful.

3. Carreer changes :-
The carreer changes such as a person suddenly switching over to a new job with new responsibilities getting promotion or demotion, transfer, etc causes stress to a person.

4. Frustration :-
Frustration is another cause of stress which goes  along with on individuals personality. When a person is unable to reached the set goals, one experiences frustration, reacts aggressively and behaves in an immatured manner due to stress.

[D] Environmental Stressors :-
The environmental stressors also called as extra-organizational stressors are as follows :

1. Civic aminities :-
Inadequate or lack of civic aminities such as improper water supply, air & noise polution, lack of proper transport facilities etc in the area in which one lives can be cause of stress.

2. Caste and religion conflicts :-
The conflicts due to caste and minority religions creates stress among people.Employees living in area subject to caste and religion conflicts do suffer from stress.

3. Technological changes :-
The changes in the technological field causes stress to employee through problems such as fear of lossing job or the need to adjust to new technology.

4. Other Environmental factors :-
The other environmental factors such as political factors, law and order situation, social and cultural changes, natural calamities, etc are the factors of stress to people.

Foundation Course (Imp. for internals)

Multiple Choice Questions :-
1. The term __________ refers to freedom to business enterprises from excessive government control.
(Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation)

2. __________ means integrating the national economy with the world economy.
(Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation)

3. __________ is a process of selling government equity in PSUs to private sectors.
(Privatisation, Dis-investment)

4. __________ migration refers to force movement of people away from their home.
(Local, mass, force)

5. __________ farming is undertaken by large corporate firms either by buying the land or taking a land on least basis.
(Corporate, contract, private)

6. The term __________ implies reduction in the role of public sector & Increased in role of private sectors in business & non-business activities.
(Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation)

7. Human rights are derived from the principal of __________ law.
(Government, natural, human)

8. The UDHR consist of a preiamble & __________ articles highlighting human rights & freedom entitled to every one in the world.
(Ten, twenty, thirty)

9. Articles 21(A) has made __________ education as a fundamental rights.
(Primary, socondry, higher)

10. __________ rights aims at personal good of an individual as well as that of the commodity.
(Natural, fundamental, religious)

11. The objectives of right to freedom fo religion is to sustain the principal of __________.
(Socialism, secularism, humanism)

12. __________ is a Abiotic & biotic element that surround humans.
(Ecology, environment, ecosystem)

13. The process of __________ occurs when the surface of the land is warn away and lost.
(Emision, deforestation, errosion)

14. An eco-system is a __________ environment consisting of all the living & non-living organism in a particular area.
(Geographical, biological, political)

15. Acid rain is one of the harmful effect of __________ polution.
(Air, water, land)

16. __________ development focuses on improving the quality of human life without Increasing the use of natural resources.
( environment,sustainable,ecological)

17. The word ‘environment’ is derived from the __________ word environ.
( German,french,latin)

Write in One Sentense :-
1. What are the four geo-spheres?
Ans: the four geo-spheres are atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, etc.

2. Two types of eco-system.
Ans: the two types of eco-system are Natural environment & Human environment.

3. Classification of eco-system.

4. Three biotic components.
Ans: the three biotic components are producer, consumer, decomposers.

5. Three main components of sustainable development.
Ans: the three main components of sustainable development are social, economic & environment.

6. Any three causes of environmental degradation.
Ans: Industrialization,population explossion,farm mechanisation are the causes of environmental degradation.

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