Robert baron defines stress as “ a state of psychological and/or physiological imbalance resulting from disparity between situational demands and individuals ability and/or motivation to meet those demands. ”
Stress is the general term applied to the presure people feel in life. stress is said to be positive when a situation offers an opportunities for a person to gain something. Eustress is the word used to describe positive stress. Stress is said to be negative when a person faces social, physical, organisational or emotional problems.
Causes of Stress :-
The factors or conditions that caused stress are called “Stressors”.
The four causes of stress can be broadly divided into four groups :-
[A] Organisational Stressors :-
The organisational stressors also called as ‘job related stressors’ are caused due to the following factors :
1. Role Conflicts :-
It takes place when different people have different expectation from a person performing a particular role. Role conflicts occurs if the job is not as per expectation of an individual or when a job demands a certain type of a behavior that is against a person’s moral values.
2. Role Ambiguity :-
It takes place when the person does not have a clear idea about his task and responsibilities in doing a job. Role ambiguity occurs when a person lacks proper knowledge of the job or lacks the skills to perform a particular task which creates confusion in the minds of the workers and may lead to stress.
3. Working conditions :-
The poor working conditions, poor lighting, improper ventilation, unhygenic sanitation facility, excessive noise and dust, presence of toxic gasses, etc creates physiological and psychological balance in a person thereby causing stress.
4. Rotating shift :-
Stress may occurs to those individuals who work in different shifts. Employees may be asked work in day or night shifts and people who cannot adjust to the shift timing may face stress problems.
5. Work overload :-
It means doing too much of work in which alloted time. When an employee is asked to do many things in very little time, he may experience the stressful situation.
6. Work underload :-
It expects an employee to do very little work or too simple work because of which the person feels bored and leads to stress.
7. Organisational structure :-
The organisational structure such as poor organisational relationship, excessive rules and regulation, leadership of superiors, lack of participation in decision-making, poor performance of the organisation, modern organisational changes,etc caused stress.
[B] Group Stressors :-
The group stressors are caused due to the following factors :
1. Lack of Group Cohesiveness :-
Cohesion refers to the ability of a group to remain together. Cohesiveness helps to developed team spirit among the members. Lack of cohesiveness leads to poor relations within a group which in turn may lead to stress.
2. Lack of social support :-
Employees feels contended by sharing their jobs or problems with other members. In the absence of such social support, it can be stressful to the members of a group.
3. Interpersonal and intergroup conflicts :-
Interpersonal and intergroup conflicts takes place due to differences in perception, attitutes, values and believes between two or more individuals or group as these are the sources of stress.
[C] Individual Stressors :-
The individual stressors are as follows :-
1. Personality :-
The personality of a person is the leading factor of stress in individual. A lazy personality person is more affected by stress and sincere personality person is less affected by stress.
2. Changes in life :-
The changes in life includes accident or death of a loved one, growing old, etc and these changes are highly stressful.
3. Carreer changes :-
The carreer changes such as a person suddenly switching over to a new job with new responsibilities getting promotion or demotion, transfer, etc causes stress to a person.
4. Frustration :-
Frustration is another cause of stress which goes along with on individuals personality. When a person is unable to reached the set goals, one experiences frustration, reacts aggressively and behaves in an immatured manner due to stress.
[D] Environmental Stressors :-
The environmental stressors also called as extra-organizational stressors are as follows :
1. Civic aminities :-
Inadequate or lack of civic aminities such as improper water supply, air & noise polution, lack of proper transport facilities etc in the area in which one lives can be cause of stress.
2. Caste and religion conflicts :-
The conflicts due to caste and minority religions creates stress among people.Employees living in area subject to caste and religion conflicts do suffer from stress.
3. Technological changes :-
The changes in the technological field causes stress to employee through problems such as fear of lossing job or the need to adjust to new technology.
4. Other Environmental factors :-
The other environmental factors such as political factors, law and order situation, social and cultural changes, natural calamities, etc are the factors of stress to people.