Migration: Meaning / Types / Causes / Effects

Introduction :-

Migration means movement or shift of people from one place to another. People move from one place to another for temprary or permanent settlement due to social,political & religious reasons.
Globalisation has made migration of people easy & common.

Types of Migration :-

The following are the different types of migration :-
1. Local Migration :-
It involves movement of people from one locality to another.

2. Regional Migration :-
It involves movement of people from one region to another.

3. Rural to Urban Migration :-
It involves movement of people from rural areas to cities areas due to industrialization.

4.Urban to Rural Migration :-
It involves movement of people from urban areas to rural areas due to higher cost of urban living.

5. Mars Migration :-
It refers to the movement of large group of people from one geographical areas to another.

6. Forced Migration :-
It refers to forced movement of people away from their home against their will due to violence, natural calamities or communal rights.

Causes of Migration :-

1. Economic factors :-
Unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from one place to another. Rural people migrate to cities in search of employment opportunities for better salaries, incentives, higher standard of living.

2. Social factors :-
Migration may also takes place due to social factors such as family, marriage, children, etc. After marriage a girl has to migrate from her place of resident to her husbands place & if a child decide to study elsewhere, the parents also migrate to the place where the child decide to study.

3. Environmental factors :-
Natural disaster such as flood, famine, earth quack,etc compel people to migrate to safer places.

4. Medical factors :-
Some people experience poor health conditions due to unsuitable climate and high population level. due to this, they migrate from one place to another for better medical & health care facilities.

5. Political factors :-
Political migration takes place due to political instability, communalism, linguism, regionalism, riots, terrorism,etc. which creates conflicts & violence in cities & states. Thus, political factors leads to migration of people to the place where there is proper law & order.

Effects of Migration :-

1. Brain Drain :-
There has been migration of Indian professionals, academicians, scientists, engineers,etc to foreign countries. Due to which their talent, knowledge & skills are denied to our country’s growth & development.
Therefore,our country should undertake effective planning to solve the problem of brain drain.

2. Increase of foreign exchange reserves :-
When people migrate to foreign countries, earned foreign currency & sent it to their family in home country. There is an increase in foreign exchange reserve of the home country.

3. Fusion of cultures :-
International migration leads to fusion of culture due to exchange of cultural traits such as food habits, dressing style, language, etc which result in change of lifestyle & personality of the migrant.

4. Hostilities towards migrants :-
The migrants have to face hostilities from local people, who may not treat them well and they may even harm their life & property leading to torture & harassment.

5. Social & psychological problems :-
Migration leads to social problems such as overcrowding of people, growth of slumps, increases crimes & evils, spread of diseases,etc.
When people migrate to different places leaving behind their family, relatives & friends, they feel lonely, isolated and insecure which leads to many psychological problems.

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